Amateur Extra License (2012 – 2016) Syllabus

SUBELEMENT E0 – SAFETY – [1 exam question -– 1 group]

E0A Safety: amateur radio safety practices; RF radiation hazards; hazardous materials

SUBELEMENT E1 – COMMISSION’S RULES [6 Exam Questions – 6 Groups]

E1A Operating Standards: frequency privileges; emission standards; automatic message forwarding; frequency sharing; stations aboard ships or aircraft

E1B Station restrictions and special operations: restrictions on station location; general operating restrictions, spurious emissions, control operator reimbursement; antenna structure restrictions; RACES operations

E1C Station control: definitions and restrictions pertaining to local, automatic and remote control operation; control operator responsibilities for remote and automatically controlled stations

E1D Amateur Satellite service: definitions and purpose; license requirements for space stations; available frequencies and bands; telecommand and telemetry operations; restrictions, and special provisions; notification requirements

E1E Volunteer examiner program: definitions, qualifications, preparation and administration of exams; accreditation; question pools; documentation requirements

E1F Miscellaneous rules: external RF power amplifiers; national quiet zone; business communications; compensated communications; spread spectrum; auxiliary stations; reciprocal operating privileges; IARP and CEPT licenses; third party communications with foreign countries; special temporary authority

SUBELEMENT E2 – OPERATING PROCEDURES [5 Exam Questions – 5 Groups]

E2A Amateur radio in space: amateur satellites; orbital mechanics; frequencies and modes; satellite hardware; satellite operations

E2B Television practices: fast scan television standards and techniques; slow scan television standards and techniques

E2C Operating methods: contest and DX operating; spread-spectrum transmissions; selecting an operating frequency

E2D Operating methods: VHF and UHF digital modes; APRS

E2E Operating methods: operating HF digital modes; error correction

SUBELEMENT E3 – RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION [3 Exam Questions – 3 Groups]

E3A Propagation and technique, Earth-Moon-Earth communications; meteor scatter

E3B Propagation and technique, trans-equatorial; long path; gray-line; multi-path propagation

E3C Propagation and technique, Aurora propagation; selective fading; radio-path horizon; take-off angle over flat or sloping terrain; effects of ground on propagation; less common propagation modes

SUBELEMENT E4 – AMATEUR PRACTICES [5 Exam Questions – 5 Groups]

E4A Test equipment: analog and digital instruments; spectrum and network analyzers, antenna analyzers; oscilloscopes; testing transistors; RF measurements

E4B Measurement technique and limitations: instrument accuracy and performance limitations; probes; techniques to minimize errors; measurement of "Q"; instrument calibration

E4C Receiver performance characteristics, phase noise, capture effect, noise floor, image rejection, MDS, signal-to-noise-ratio; selectivity

E4D Receiver performance characteristics, blocking dynamic range, intermodulation and cross-modulation interference; 3rd order intercept; desensitization; preselection

E4E Noise suppression: system noise; electrical appliance noise; line noise; locating noise sources; DSP noise reduction; noise blankers

SUBELEMENT E5 – ELECTRICAL PRINCIPLES [4 Exam Questions – 4 Groups]

E5A Resonance and Q: characteristics of resonant circuits: series and parallel resonance; Q; half-power bandwidth; phase relationships in reactive circuits

E5B Time constants and phase relationships: RLC time constants: definition; time constants in RL and RC circuits; phase angle between voltage and current; phase angles of series and parallel circuits

E5C Impedance plots and coordinate systems: plotting impedances in polar coordinates; rectangular coordinates

E5D AC and RF energy in real circuits: skin effect; electrostatic and electromagnetic fields; reactive power; power factor; coordinate systems

SUBELEMENT E6 – CIRCUIT COMPONENTS [6 Exam Questions – 6 Groups]

E6A Semiconductor materials and devices: semiconductor materials germanium, silicon, P-type, N-type; transistor types: NPN, PNP, junction, field-effect transistors: enhancement mode; depletion mode; MOS; CMOS; N-channel; P-channel

E6B Semiconductor diodes

E6C Integrated circuits: TTL digital integrated circuits; CMOS digital integrated circuits; gates

E6D Optical devices and toroids: cathode-ray tube devices; charge-coupled devices (CCDs); liquid crystal displays (LCDs); toroids: permeability, core material, selecting, winding

E6E Piezoelectric crystals and MMICs: quartz crystals; crystal oscillators and filters; monolithic amplifiers

E6F Optical components and power systems: photoconductive principles and effects, photovoltaic systems, optical couplers, optical sensors, and optoisolators

SUBELEMENT E7 – PRACTICAL CIRCUITS [8 Exam Questions – 8 Groups]

E7A Digital circuits: digital circuit principles and logic circuits: classes of logic elements; positive and negative logic; frequency dividers; truth tables

E7B Amplifiers: Class of operation; vacuum tube and solid-state circuits; distortion and intermodulation; spurious and parasitic suppression; microwave amplifiers

E7C Filters and matching networks: filters and impedance matching networks: types of networks; types of filters; filter applications; filter characteristics; impedance matching; DSP filtering

E7D Power supplies and voltage regulators

E7E Modulation and demodulation: reactance, phase and balanced modulators; detectors; mixer stages; DSP modulation and demodulation; software defined radio systems

E7F Frequency markers and counters: frequency divider circuits; frequency marker generators; frequency counters

E7G Active filters and op-amps: active audio filters; characteristics; basic circuit design; operational amplifiers

E7H Oscillators and signal sources: types of oscillators; synthesizers and phase-locked loops; direct digital synthesizers

SUBELEMENT E8 – SIGNALS AND EMISSIONS [4 Exam Questions – 4 Groups]

E8A AC waveforms: sine, square, sawtooth and irregular waveforms; AC measurements; average and PEP of RF signals; pulse and digital signal waveforms

E8B Modulation and demodulation: modulation methods; modulation index and deviation ratio; pulse modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing

E8C Digital signals: digital communications modes; CW; information rate vs. bandwidth; spread-spectrum communications; modulation methods

E8D Waves, measurements, and RF grounding: peak-to-peak values, polarization; RF grounding

SUBELEMENT E9 – ANTENNAS AND TRANSMISSION LINES [8 Exam Questions – 8 Groups]

E9A Isotropic and gain antennas: definition; used as a standard for comparison; radiation pattern; basic antenna parameters: radiation resistance and reactance, gain, beamwidth, efficiency

E9B Antenna patterns: E and H plane patterns; gain as a function of pattern; antenna design; Yagi antennas

E9C Wire and phased vertical antennas: beverage antennas; terminated and resonant rhombic antennas; elevation above real ground; ground effects as related to polarization; take-off angles

E9D Directional antennas: gain; satellite antennas; antenna beamwidth; losses; SWR bandwidth; antenna efficiency; shortened and mobile antennas; grounding

E9E Matching: matching antennas to feed lines; power dividers

E9F Transmission lines: characteristics of open and shorted feed lines: 1/8 wavelength; 1/4 wavelength; 1/2 wavelength; feed lines: coax versus open-wire; velocity factor; electrical length; transformation characteristics of line terminated in impedance not equal to characteristic impedance

E9G The Smith chart

E9H Effective radiated power; system gains and losses; radio direction finding antennas

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